Sergei Pavlovich Korolev was born in Zhitomir on January 12, 1907. His parents were the teacher of Russian literature Pavel Yakovlevich Korolev and the daughter of the Nezhinsky merchant Maria Nikolaevna Moskalenko. When Sergei was only three years old, his family broke up and his mother got married, they moved to Odessa, it was Odessa that revealed his talent and immediately showed a love for aviation. His stepfather had a very strong influence on him. He, being an engineer, introduced me to the members of the Odessa aviation circle.
Sergei Korolev became one of the largest figures of the twentieth century in the field of space rocketry and shipbuilding. About how the fate of the founder of practical cosmonautics developed, what the USSR managed to achieve thanks to his work and why they did not talk about him until his death.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev is one of the most outstanding people of the 20th century, who had a very rich and amazing life. He could have crashed on a glider, he could have been shot as an “enemy of the people”, but he was sentenced to imprisonment, and later he was rehabilitated. He could have died in the camps, but survived. Finally, he was supposed to drown in the Pacific Ocean, but missed the ship, which crashed after 5 days.
In Odessa, Korolev chooses his life path and decides to start his studies as an aircraft designer.
In 1921, a detachment of seaplanes was created in Odessa, the future designer was seriously carried away by aeronautics. He made acquaintance with the members of the detachment and decided to become a pilot. At the same time, he worked in a school workshop, where he stood behind a lathe, turned parts of a very complex shape and configuration. This school came in very handy in the future when he started building his own gliders.
Model of one of the aircraft designed by S.P. Korolev
Later, Korolev joined the Aviation and Aeronautics Society of Ukraine and Crimea, studied in one of the gliding circles. He even lectured on gliding. Korolev acquired knowledge of the history of aviation on his own, reading specialized literature, including a book in German. Already at the age of 17, he developed a project for an aircraft of the original design, the “K-5 non-motorized aircraft”.
In 1924, Sergey Korolev entered the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, then transferred to the Bauman Moscow State Technical University, to the aeromechanical faculty. The meeting with Tsiolkovsky, in Kaluga in 1929 on the way from Odessa to Moscow, had great significance on the life of Sergei Korolev. “Tsiolkovsky then shocked me with his unshakable belief in the possibility of space navigation,” the designer recalled many years later, “I left him with one single thought: to build rockets and fly them. The whole meaning of life for me has become one thing – to break through to the stars. “
Korolev led the development of the first stable propellant ballistic missiles. On October 4, 1957, a rocket designed by Sergei Korolyov launched the first ever artificial satellite into earth orbit.
The era of practical cosmonautics began from this day. On April 12, 1961, the designer, together with colleagues and like-minded people, successfully launched the Vostok-1 spacecraft, on board of which was the first cosmonaut of the planet Yuri Gagarin. This is the beginning of the era of manned astronautics.
Since 1959, Sergei Korolev directed the lunar exploration program.
Under the direct leadership of Sergei Korolev, the first space complex was created in the USSR, many geophysical and ballistic missiles, the world’s first intercontinental ballistic missile, the Vostok launch vehicle and its modifications, an artificial Earth satellite, flights of the Vostok and Voskhod spacecraft were carried out “, The first spacecraft of the” Luna “,” Venus “,” Mars “,” Zond “series, and the” Soyuz “spacecraft were developed.