the old carol ritual was revived in the Mogilev region

The old carol rite “Shchodrytsa” – Generous Evening, or Shchedrets – was revived in the agro-town of Kadino, Mogilev region. According to tradition, on the old New Year, carolers gathered here, who in a large and cheerful crowd went to the houses of their neighbors, led the Goat and the Bear, danced and sang generosity – praise to the hospitable hosts, guessed and made a talisman against loneliness with the help of a generous candle. BelTA correspondents joined the festive procession and became participants in all folk fun and rituals.

“According to old traditions, on the old New Year, our ancestors celebrated Shchodrya kalyadki,” says Irina Yakovleva, choirmaster of the Mogilev regional center of culture. “Today we tried to reconstruct this holiday, collecting bit by bit those rituals and songs that our What is the difference between an ordinary Kolyada and Shchodrai? Everything is very simple: at Christmas they sang songs that praised the birth of Christ: “Christ is blessed, the world has brought us peace!” wished for peace, goodness and well-being.”

A feature of Shchedrets in the Mogilev region is the long-forgotten tradition of girls giving each other candles – a talisman against loneliness. The history of the ceremony was once told by a resident of Kadino, Nina Petrenya. “The candle was brought to the house of that beauty who wanted to get married,” explains Irina Yakovleva. “It was believed that the generous woman helped in arranging personal happiness. The candle was passed from house to house only on Generous Evening and remained with an unmarried girl for a whole year – until the next holiday. It was believed that during this period she must meet her betrothed. By the way, each girl decorated a candle on her own – she made a kind of lace or satin skirt for her. “

The local House of Culture is confident that this long-forgotten rite will soon become widespread throughout the region. So, at one of the weddings, the grandmother brought such a candle to show the girls and talked about its meaning. The woman wished that the local young women were certainly happy in their personal lives.

“The history of the creation of the amulet is rooted in the feast of the Thunder,” clarifies Irina Yakovleva. “On this day, women sculpted a candle and passed it to the house, where there were a lot of livestock, which, for unknown reasons, did not breed. Then the tradition was intercepted by young people. The reason was simple: in one year it so happened that none of the young women who lived in this area got married.The girls began to guess at their personal happiness, but they all met with failure: no one was destined to find a mate in the future.They decided to take the initiative in their own hands and made a charm: they took wax from all fortune-telling candles, molded a large candle and handed it to their girlfriend with wishes of luck in finding a soul mate. So the charm for happiness and love began to move from one house to another. ”

Traditionally, Kolyada was the most favorable time for fortune-telling – the girls devoted the evenings from Generous Kolyada to Epiphany to this activity. However, the amulet candle did not participate in fortune-telling, it was customary to communicate with it in private: to ask for help through prayer for the betrothed and the resolution of heart affairs. For example, a guy liked, but does not pay attention, which means that you need to ask the generous woman to become interested in the beauty.

All the fortune-telling of the young women was associated with the device of personal happiness, whether it was the traditional throwing of a boot or felt boots (in which direction the nose of the shoe showed, from there the betrothed should wait) or hugging the fence (if you managed to grab an even number of boards, then this year the girl will be with a pair) . At home, before going to bed, the girl could comb her hair with a comb and put it under the pillow at night with the words: “My betrothed, dressed up, come to me dressed up, comb me.” If a girl put a container of water under the bed and put a straw on top, the words were: “My betrothed, mummers, come to me dressed up, take me across the bridge.” It was believed that in these cases, the future spouse would definitely dream in a dream and fulfill his plan. The most desperate went to guess in the bath: they placed three mirrors in the dark and lit a candle with a request to the future husband to appear in the reflection. However, not many young women were distinguished by such fearlessness and self-control.

However, the most important cheerful and provocative musical action took place on the rural streets. A large and noisy crowd led by Kolyada, Koza and an accordion player sang carols and looked into every house. In the motley crowd of mummers, there were always such characters as the Bear, who was supposed to entertain the people with his clumsy clumsy dances, gypsies, in order to certainly perform comic fortune-telling, Mekhanosha with a huge bag over his shoulder, where all the caroled treats were stored. In their hands, the mummers traditionally carried a “calad zorka” decorated with multi-colored ribbons – a symbol of the Star of Bethlehem.

As a rule, the dialogue with the owners of the house began on a humorous note: carolers complained that they were coming from a distant land, they were very tired, they wanted to eat and relax. And they immediately ask to enter, and the owners are happy: Kolyada in the house is happiness in it, but if you close the doors in front of the guests and do not give treats, expect troubles and failures for a whole year. “We are not simple people, from a distant land, we go through the light as much as the hell of Pan Summer. We do not go here, we carry a candle-shchodrytsu with ourselves!” The girl living in this house took the candle, dressed it up and carried it to the goddess. With a prayer, they put her under the image: “Holy-holy, Shchodrytsa, now, high memory!”

As soon as the cheerful crowd enters the house, a comic performance begins, the main character of which is the Goat – a symbol of wealth and prosperity. It was believed that if she was generously treated, there would be a good harvest. The owners first of all pay attention to this character and are interested in whether the Goat is a stray among carolers? At these words, Goat becomes ill, and she theatrically faints right in the middle of the room. The voice of the mummers begins: “Oh, the kaza has fallen, dried up, prapala! And the request is unconditionally fulfilled: the husband and wife generously endow not only the Goat, on whose neck and horns they hang all sorts of treats, but also the rest of the carolers. As a token of gratitude, the latter scatter grain around the house – for money and wealth.

By the way, not a single such holiday is complete without musicians, who create a unique and sincere atmosphere for the whole action. Accordion, rattles, tambourine, spoons – everything merges into one joyful melody, into a colorful folk tune. This time, among all the musical instruments, an unusual home-made “bead” stood out. A simple, but very effective instrument, even outwardly similar to this bird, a symbol of its native land. It was invented and brought to life by the accompanist of the Podgorsky club of the Mogilev region Viktor Pastukhov, who has more than 40 years of experience behind him. In the work biography there is even the position of director of the art school.

“Not a single rite, not a single significant event in the cycle of human life is complete without music,” Viktor Pastukhov notes. “So I did my bit – I created a noise instrument, which is no longer in Belarus. on the ground, like a staff. Its basis was a bifurcated bough, between the branches of which a string with small cymbals is stretched. An elastic band is provided at the bottom of the leg of the instrument to make the knock softer. A “bead” head with a long nose is attached at the top. The instrument fits very organically into the folklore theme and has become an integral part of regional musical festivals. Next year there is an idea to make an owl with bells and bells – another novelty.”

Viktor Pastukhov recalls that carols used to be the most favorite children’s entertainment. They gathered in a cheerful crowd, put on multi-colored masks, turned the sheepskin coat inside out – and went to the neighbors with songs, jokes and jokes. “The hosts treat us with what God has sent, and we are happy!” says the musician. “These traditions have always existed, they are needed and important today. For people, a holiday and positive emotions are important. And this is also a good reason to remember your songs – and old ones and new ones. Belarusian melodies are lyrical, melodic, beautiful. We, Belarusians, should not forget our roots, our culture! And children should be interested in our example.”

Mikhail Kaplan, the accompanist of the Kadinsky Village House of Culture, became the main harmonist of the holiday. At one glance at the virtuoso with a button accordion in his hands, in an embroidered national shirt and a black cap with a red satin carnation, the mood rises. “Music, especially ours, Belarusian music, in a special way falls on the hearts of people,” notes Mikhail Kaplan. “The people around hear it and from the first chords change their faces – they start smiling, distracted from their everyday affairs and family problems. Folk music really cheers up , brings joy, helps a person to relieve a burden from his shoulders, and all life issues are resolved much easier. Music has always lived in the hearts of people, lives and will live!”

According to the musician, today there are many technical possibilities and modern instruments, but folk ones, such as the button accordion and accordion, still do not die. “It is our Belarusian soul that sings,” Mikhail Kaplan is sure. “I know for sure: you won’t go caroling with a laptop and modern music.”

The participants of the ceremony were pupils of the theater circle and employees of the Kadinsky House of Culture. So, the role of an unmarried girl, who was given a candle-shedrovka, was played by Angelina Nikolayeva, a tenth grader of the Kadinsky secondary school. “To be honest, even though I am a local resident, I was not familiar with this ritual before,” she admits. “Of course, I’m not going to marry now, but I will remember this tradition for the future. and fortune-telling, – I mainly perceive them as part of the traditional Belarusian culture. This is a spiritual wealth that is passed down from generation to generation, so we need to honor and preserve it. As for modern traditions, it is customary in our family to get together on holidays, have dinner and communicate”.

Work with young people to preserve folk rituals and traditions has always been relevant, they say in the Mogilev region. “We try to celebrate all Belarusian holidays with children – Shrovetide, Kupalle, Kolyada … We even recreated such a rare and forgotten ritual as Komoyeditsa, associated with the meeting of spring and the awakening of a bear,” said Irina Belskaya, head of the theater group of the House of Culture of the agricultural town of Kadino. I like events very much – they never refuse to participate in them and play out folk stories with great pleasure. This is the way to build love and respect for native roots, traditions and culture.”

Yulia Evmenkova,

photo by Oleg FOYNITSKY,


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